Weaving Explorations and a Silk Purse

Male Hose 14th Century

Hose construction is based on sample of wool cloth in the 14th century layers at Baynard”s Castle excavation. Pattern was created from the extant pieces pictured on page 188-9 of Textiles and Clothing book (Crowfoot, Pritchard, and Staniland)

Find Description


BC72 No 235 [79]  <1830/4> TB51

Figure 167A, 168A, dye tested

The extant pieces are bias-cut tabby weave fabric. There are 7 examples in the textile addenda to AML Report 3778. A preliminary record from Site 16 of TBX/7 of two pieces 10 x 6 cm and 12 x 5.3 cm show tabby weave of 12-13 Z-twist warp threads per cm and a weft of 18-20 S-twist  threads per cm (Baynard’s Castle textile addenda to AML Report 3778). However, this piece specifically is 10-12 threads per cm warp and has a weft of 12 threads per cm. (Baynard’s Castle 1499 Dock Settlement Deposit Textiles. Tabulation for AML Report 2435)

These were “cut fragments, bias-cut weft edge folded under 3-5 mm, stitches 5-7 mm; both have outside edge turned under” (Baynard’s Castle textile addenda to AML Report 3778). As well, TBX/33 10 x 7 cm tabby weave, colour red-brown, fulled – shaped, cut bias, curved end. (Baynard’s Castle textile addenda to AML Report 3778). This piece is mid to dark brown in colour and shows evidence of double-stitching. (Baynard’s Castle 1499 Dock Settlement Deposit Textiles. Tabulation for AML Report 2435)

Colour

Find is Madder dyed and possibly fulled. Due to conditions in which the pieces were found it was difficult to determine conclusively on the finish treatment.

Other colours were used  for hose as evidenced by the Great Wardrobe entries  – two colours (p58 Fashion), marbre (p58 Fashion), and in 1351 for Jean le Fol’s valet Girardin were four pairs of hose in ‘de plusiers couleurs’ ( p81 Fashion)

Colours of hose
British Library Digital Archive Egerton MS 3277 2nd half of 14th century ‘Bohun Psalter’.

Dye tests on finds done on the Baynard’s Castle finds showed madder, kermes, indigotin, lichen purple, and brazilwood used as well as a yellow or brown dye which could not be conclusively specified. (Results of Dye tests on Textiles from Baynard’s Castle) ((Ancient Monuments Laboratory Report 81/87, Dyes in Textiles from Baynard’s Castle: a Summary of Results from Tests Carried Out between 1978 and 1987 by Penelope Walton))

Cost

Cost in period has not been found separately for hose in the various accounts of the Great Wardrobe of King Edward III, although listed. However, as the fabric used due to the bias cut would be similar in length to an undertunic, though slightly less, one could conclude the cost would be similar. And undertunic “made for the king in the old fashion [de antique modo], each pair xiiijd.vijs”.(p17 Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince). My thought is that the hose may be included in the cost of a ‘suit’ which could consist of multiple pieces, one of which usually was the pourpoint, that was designed with eyelet holes and laces “with metal points to thread through them in order not only to keep the hose up but to keep itself down” (p.55 Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince) In 1360 an entry if for a suit of four garments as well as three pairs of hose.

In general one could get a pair of hose from .75 ells of fabric. (77 pairs of hose 57 ¾ ells of cloth [P226. Collectanea Londiniensia])

I have also delved into the cost of wool fabric per pound in my last Anthenaeum entry found here https://athenaeum.baronyofmadrone.net/exhibit/margaret-hamilton-of-stirlingshire-2/

The length of fabric was in units called ells. Ells varied from country to country and are said to originate from ‘cubit’, combined length of elbow and forearm and extended hand. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ell)   It ranged from 45 inches in England, 37 inches in Scotland, the Flemish used 27 inches, and the French 54 inches. Prehistoric widths could be 3 – 4 metres wide. (Stolcova, Tereza Belanova and Gromer, Karina Loom Weights, Spindles, and Textiles )

The Piece

This was woven in tabby weave. 8 epi warp, 6 epi weft. Harrisville Shetland wool. This is a medium to heavier weight wool. A finer weight such as a Merino wool would have been used to get the ends per inch in the extant pieces.

Warp-weighted Loom experiment

Originally I intended to weave the fabric on a warp-weighted loom. I had started my research with a historical video and supplemented with information gleaned online. An old upright piano frame was converted into a loom, combined with a few other pieces of lumber.

header warp weighted loom
Inkle loom header for warp weighted loom

The warp was attached to a cord initially, then to some wide inkle weaving, for the top end of the fabric. A number of adjustments were then made to the epi until I obtained 16-20 ends per cm. warp but only 3-4 ends per cm weft. This is in keeping within the range for this type of loom as determined by fragments  “for textile fragments recovered from deposits at the sites of Gasir, Kuabot, Mooruvellir, Besssastadir, Bergporshvoll, and Skriduklausture dating to AD 1200-1500.”( P 33. Textiles and the Medieval Economy: Production, Trade and Consumption of Textiles, 8th-16th Centuries)

Weights for the warp were also an experiment. I started with multiple metal washers grouped with 10 – 12 warp threads, added piano weights, then settled with 2.5 kg to 10 kg. exercise weights in larger groups of warp threads. In one study it is calculated that the (loom) weight equals to 40 grams per thread. (Loom Weights, Spindles and Textiles. Stolcova and Gromer)

Loom weight Plate 1
Pl. 1 Middle Saxon bone loom weight late 7th – early 8th century Museum of London
Loom weight
pl 2. Middle Saxon clay loom weight 8th century Museum of London
modern weights
No kiln? Use modern weights. These range from 2.5 to 10 kg.

A one inch by two inch 6 foot length of purple heart wood was used as the beater bar. Purple heart is very dense so would stay straight for the whole weaving time however I did not shape it to having a narrow edge as it was to be used for other things. A narrower edge would have allowed a tighter spacing for the weft.

Wool was noticeably sticky in weaving compared to the Double-Weave project.

The piece was washed then laid flat to dry. This process allowed 25 to 30% shrinkage warp-wise and 10% weft-wise.

Warp-weighted loom result
Finished and washed Warp-weighted loom weaving.

There was a number of challenges with this method encountered such as getting the epi to where I wanted, proper weight for the loom weights, even weft spacing upon shifting the warp up as woven,  and body issues. Switching to a four-harness loom allowed me to eliminate many of those issues.

Double-weave

Switching to the four-harness loom allowed the wool to be double woven to get 38 inches width. This width is to allow some bias cut to get stretchiness for the legs. Bias cut allows for better fit around a curved body part such as a leg, however it demands more fabric to cut out such a piece so it is not used extensively for other items of clothing. The term double weave means to load the loom with one layer of cloth to weave, and then to load the loom with another layer above the first. One then weaves one layer and then the other joining the two at one edge as you weave, so four passes as opposed to two to complete a section of cloth.

double weave top
Top view of Double-weave project. Still on the loom.
double weave side
Double-weave side view. This shows the gap between the two layers. This is taken from the open side

Numerous issues came up during the weaving. A tension issue developed as I forgot to insert layer spacers on the back beam to prevent wandering threads. After fixing that issue the warp had to be coaxed into proper tension.

tension issues
Fixing the back beam and retentioning the warp. An interesting learning experience.

As well there was the occasional skip of threads since I could not see the complete surface all at once. This was fixed by weaving in a length of thread to reinforce the area and put back the proper sequence.

post fix of weave
Top right skip fixed. Left skip to fix.

Once woven the piece was washed then hung on a drying rack. The edges were then attached to the rack as if on tenderhooks. This allowed the fabric to dry with relatively little shrinkage.

drying
Improvised tenderhooks. A regular drying rack was draped with the washed fabric and edges of the fabric were attached by thread to maintain tension.

After drying the surface was rubbed with a smooth marble coaster to refine the surface. Further finishing was debated but the merits of shaving (or razoring) were felt unnecessary.

marble
Alternative use of a marble coaster. Top surface of the stone is extremely smooth and has a decent weight to handle.

Pattern

The pattern is based off a pair of hose made by Mistress Agnes Creseweke based on the find in Textiles and Clothing. She had passed these on to my spouse, and as they fit him well I used the measurements off the hose. This is a man’s hose so runs from the toe to the inner upper thigh. It would be attached to the breeches by a lacing.

Men’s leg coverings had transitioned from pants to simple hose. The hose in England and France became more fitted and thus involved more pieces to fit the foot closer. This is a two piece pattern, one for the leg to the top of the arch of the foot and another to enclose the rest of the foot and toes. There are a number of designs for hose throughout the time-period into the 15th century found at Baynard’s Castle. (p. 185 – 190 Textiles and Clothing). He is from the mid-14th century so this simplier pattern is appropriate.

hose cutting out
Cutting out of the hose pattern. Fabric is folded so bias is achieved and foot part is cut out separately. This allowed for the most efficient use of fabric.

In the extant piece a seam runs the back of the leg and under the foot, and across the arch around the foot. Seams are  joined by either running stitch or back stitch (p. 187 Textiles and Clothing). The edges of the seam are tacked down with a running stitch.

foot bottom
Foot seam attached to the leg of the hose. The two joined pieces are then sewn as one so the seam runs along the bottom of the foot up the back of the leg.

In the hose made for my spouse the foot piece is sewn onto to leg with backstitch. Edge of the seam is finished by a buttonhole stitch to secure the threads, then trimmed, folded over, and stitched down with a slipstitch.

hose seam finish
Finishing the edge with a slip stitch. On the second leg a finer seam finish is being accomplished.
hose seam edge
Slipstitch of the seam edge.
foot seam front view
Finished foot seam front view. The seam is a little wide and proud of the foot portion. Second leg is finer.
hose back seam
Back seam of the hose.
seam
Close up of hose foot to leg seam, outside.

Hem at top has been top-stitched with a back stitch.

hose top hem
Hem at the top of the hose. Raw edge is folded under then stitched down with backstitch.
both legs
Front view of both legs complete
side view
Hose both legs complete, with garters and view of upper leg

Bibliography

Textiles and Clothing

Crowfoot, Elisabeth; Pritchard, Frances; Staniland, Kay

Museum of London

Boydell and Brewer Ltd. Woodbridge, Suffolk

c. 2001 ISBN 9781843832393

https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=CY-8T59wHHUC&oi=fnd&pg=PP16&dq=textiles+archaeological+sites+baynard+castle&ots=KMm8rfA6Mt&sig=94IMvtJhFg0a8dOiw9dIYG6XvSA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=textiles%20archaeological%20sites%20baynard%20castle&f=false

c.2006  paperback edition

Chapter 7 Loin and Leg Coverings: Underpants, Hose, Sock, Buskin https://brill.com/view/book/9789004352162/BP000017.xml)

British Library Digital Archive

http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=egerton_ms_3277_fs001ar

http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/Viewer.aspx?ref=egerton_ms_3277_fs001ar

London Archaeologist

London Archaeologist Association, 2008 (updated 2019)

London Archaeologist – Volume 01:14 (1972) – Table of Contents

https://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archives/view/london_arch/contents.cfm?vol=01:14

Queen Victoria Street, (No 135), EC4 {Medieval dock/river defences}

https://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archsearch/record.xhtml

https://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archsearch/record?titleId=2797514

Holmes Great Metropolis

https://books.google.ca/books?id=LHMOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA80-IA7&lpg=PA80-IA7&dq=Baynard%27s+castle+textile+finds&source=bl&ots=5uZk5tL9gP&sig=ACfU3U1nBzh70Xtc04beRqlEswjP4GaEuQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj9mMHVmevnAhWULH0KHQZUAuMQ6AEwEnoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=Baynard’s%20castle%20textile%20finds&f=false

Royal Palace’s Baynard’s Castle

https://www.royalpalaces.com/palaces/baynards-castle/

A London Inheritance

A Private History of a Public City

https://alondoninheritance.com/tag/baynards-castle/

Historic England

https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1001965

Baynard’s Castle, 78m south-west of St Benet Metropolitan Welsh Church

  • Archaeology Data Service

London Archaeologist

  • London Archaeologist Association, 2008 (updated 2019)
  • London Archaeologist – Volume 01:14 (1972) – Table of Contents

https://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archives/view/london_arch/contents.cfm?vol=01:14

Archaeology Data Service

Greater London Archaeology Advisory Service, Historic England

Queen Victoria Street, (No 135), EC4 {Medieval dock/river defences}

https://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archsearch/record.xhtml

https://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/archsearch/record?titleId=2797514

https://research.historicengland.org.uk/Report.aspx?i=2294&ru=%2FResults.aspx%3Fp%3D117

Fashion in the Age of the Black Prince. Stella Mary Newton.c.1980. Boydell Press. Suffolk, UK

            ISBN 978085115762

Textiles and Clothing 1150-1450. Crowfoot, E; Pritchard, F; Staniland,K. c.2001 Museum of London. Boydell Press. Suffolk, UK

            ISBN 9781843832393

Collectanea Londiniensia

Collectanea Londiniensia, Studies Presented to Ralph Merrifield: Clothing and Textiles at the Court of Edward III, 1342 – 1352.Middlesex Archaelogical Society Special Paper 2. P223 – 234.

http://www.lamas.org.uk/images/documents/Special_Papers/SP2%201978%20Collectanea%20Londiniensia.pdf

The Wool Trade In English Medieval History Being The Ford Lectures By Eileen Power Professor of Economic History in the University of London

https://socialsciences.mcmaster.ca/econ/ugcm/3ll3/power/WoolTrade.pdf

Textiles and the Medieval Economy: Production, Trade and Consumption of Textiles, 8th-16th Centuries

Edited by Anjela Ling Huang and Carsten Jahnke. C.2015. Oxbow Books. Oxford UK

Digital ISBN 9781782976479

https://books.google.ca/books?id=RrRiBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA196&lpg=PA196&dq=14th+century+spinners&source=bl&ots=cG5e_WBCD6&sig=ACfU3U0ihYticCvKTUXSaez-3hmn6zcpog&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjTp560vJXoAhWbCTQIHRxxAsQ4ChDoATACegQIBxAB#v=onepage&q=14th%20century%20spinners&f=false

Medieval Clothing and Textiles:4
Netherton, Robin and Owen-Crocker, Gail R.. copyright 2008. Boydell Press. Woodbridge.
ISBN 9781843833666

https://books.google.ca/books?id=wSIToSOxR8MC&pg=PA21&lpg=PA21&dq=The+Medieval+Scarlet&source=bl&ots=t3eH1318q0&sig=ACfU3U3TFq9O5BcEbLxtkligCQwOmCxVbw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjbt5a96qHoAhXPFTQIHb7FDAgQ6AEwDHoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=The%20Medieval%20Scarlet&f=false

Loom-Weights, Spindles and Textiles. Textile Production in Central Europe from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age. Belanová –Štolcová, T. & Grömer, K.

E. Andersson Strand, M. Gleba, U. Mannering, C. Munkholt and M. Ringgaard (Hrsg.), North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X. Ancient Textiles series Vol. 5, Oxford, Oxbow Books, 9-20, 2010

https://www.academia.edu/12162914/Loom-Weights_Spindles_and_Textiles._Textile_Production_in_Central_Europe_from_the_Bronze_Age_to_the_Iron_Age._Belanov%C3%A1_%C5%A0tolcov%C3%A1_T._and_Gr%C3%B6mer_K

Plate 1 Loom weight
Museum of London
https://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk/online/object/455112.html

Plate 2 Loom weight
Museum of London
https://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk/online/object/455118.html

Song Dynasty Market Wallet – Work in Progress

Item is based on an extant bag excavated from Zhou Yu’s tomb in Jintan, Mao Lu Township, China. It dates from the Song Dynasty era. The one I am replicating or inspired by is Plate 249 in Chinese Textile Design by Gao Hanyu, translated by Rosemary Scott and Susan Whitfield.

extant purse
Description Plate 249 “Dalian ( bag) made of yellow patterned duan with applique embroidery Song. This bag was probably made in two parts to be fitted over the girdle when worn. When folded, the two sections hanging down would have formed money bags. These were popular in the Song and Yuan Dynasties and this is the earliest extant example.” (Chinese Textile Design)

Description of extant bag

“Applique-embroidered dalian bag (plate 249), excavated from the Southern Song tomb of Zhou Yu at Jintan, has a patterned base material on to which has been applied a design of flowers. Over this, various stitches have been used to outline and decorate, so that the design incorporates several styles.” (p 32 Chinese Textile Design)

Site description:

 [Author] Xiao Menglong ;

[Organization] Zhenjiang City Museum ; Jintan County Cultural Management Committee ;

【Abstract】In early July 1975, the Xiangyang Brigade of Maolu Commune in Jintan County discovered a tomb from the Southern Song Dynasty, unearthed a number of important cultural relics, and the corpses are preserved intact. According to a volume in the tomb’s Supplementary Records of a Student of the Middle School, the owner of the tomb is Zhou Yu and his identity is a student of the Tai. The location and structure of the tomb is the Xiangyang Brigade of Maolu Commune in Jintan County. It is located in the hilly area of ​​Maoshan Mountain at the junction of Jintan and Jurong County in Zhenjiang District. It is 30 kilometers east of Jintan County. The tomb of Zhou Yu is located in Heilonggang of the brigade. Slope eastward. 

Wallets have been labelled purses, sachets, bags, and market wallets by archaeologists.  Purses were hung from the girdle and contained money and could also contain handkerchiefs, keys, a knife. ( p132 Daily Life in China). The style used here is generally thought to be used for holding coins. One find had paper coins still inside.

paper coins
Extant purse with paper coins inside.

Material

Bag was of a silk satin which had been woven with a pattern (unspecified). Other silk is then applied with a variety of stitches in silk and excess material was cut away, leaving a floral design.

Production of silk fabric shifted from family enterprise to larger industry (p17 Daily Life in China). Bolts of silk were used as one form of payment of taxes and sent to other neighbouring governments as tribute. (p 16 Chinese Textile Design) In the Song Dynasty 94% of the tribute to the Emperor came from the modern day areas of Jiangsu and Zhejiang Province. (p 15 Chinese Textile Design) 100,000 bolts of Luo (gauze) were paid. (p 16  Chinese Textile Design)

Duan translates to Satin. It is woven so that only the warp or the weft is seen on the surface so the fabric is smooth and shiny (p 19 Chinese Textile Design)

A Sha (open tabby) extant fabric had 20 warps per centimetre and 24 wefts per centimetre. (p 15 Chinese Textile Design). Another extant bag from the earlier Liao dynasty (907 – 1125 AD) was of a compound twill had 42 warps per cm and 42 wefts per cm.(Item 8 5000 Years of Chinese Costumes)

Extant textiles show the same S-twist and Z-twist for the weft and warp threads (p15 Chinese Textile Design) as one sees in European textiles.

Looms in China in this time period resemble the four heddle loom I used. I don’t have treadles (foot peddles) set up on my loom but there is evidence of those and multiple heddles as far back as the Shang dynasty. Finely woven silk crepe, gauze, and damasks were found at sites in Hebei Province and Henan Province dated to that time period. (p.10 Chinese Textile Design)

The Song dynasty bag appears lined, however it is not  mentioned in the description. As there is no mention of cotton or hemp or other material I would assume, if lined, it was lined in silk.

Dimensions for bags of this type were around 14 -15 cm long, around 12 cm wide with a narrowing to around 7cm at the centre opening.

Stitches

purse stitch closeup
Close up of stitches used in extant piece. Chain stitch and seed stitch are used here. Chinese Textile Design.

Main stitch used on the bag for embroidery was Chain stitch. This stitch was also known as Pigtail stitch as it could look like a pig’s curled tail. (p 28 Chinese Textile Design). It is the oldest extant stitch used by the Chinese cultures with finds at the tomb of Fu Hao at Angyang. That item dates to the Shang dynasty, 1600 – 1050  BC. (p 28 Chinese Textile Design)

There is a stitch around the edge of the bag in the same thread as the Chain stitch. Each stitch is the same length as the previous and go around the entire edge and the edge of the opening.

purse stitch edge
Close up of stitch used around outer edge of purse. Chinese Textile Design
purse inner edge close up
Close up of inner seam edge with stitch used. Chinese Textile Design

There are also two small stitches, one on each side at the centre meeting of the largest flowers’ petals. Although it is hard to state definitively due to lack of explicit description or close photography of the extant piece I believe it to be a Seed stitch.  Also known as Knot stitch, ring-stitch, tied-stitch (p 32 Chinese Textile Design) and in European cultures as a French knot. The thread is wrapped around the needle after it emerges from the back of the fabric, forming a circle, and then the needle reenters the fabric right next to where it came out initiately, securing the knot. It leaves a stitch with dimension sitting above the surface of the fabric higher than the chain or satin stitch.

Dyes

Indigo, a long-lasting dye, was grown and harvested yearly, which limited the availability of the dyeing process until the processing and ability to store the dye developed. (Study on the Origin of Nantong Blue Calico) ( https://www.atlantis-press.com/article/25873402.pdf)

Indigo then began to be mixed with other vegetable dyes, such as Carthamus which together made purple, and cape jasmine (yellow) which together produced green. (https://www.rom.on.ca/sites/default/files/imce/touchedbyindigo_original.pdf).

The bag was dyed yellow.  A number of vegetable dyes were used in China to produce yellow.

Hispid Arthraxon (Arthraxon hispid in other sources), also known as lu green or king’s hay, is also known in North America, where it was introduced, as small carpetgrass or hairy jointgrass. The yellow dye was produced by the primary compound arthraxon. This was combined with a copper compound mordant to produce a ‘fresh’ green. (p 264 Chinese Textile Design)

Another potential yellow dye was Buckthorn (Rhamnus davurica) also known as great green, ice green, or red-skinned green tree. The arthracen-quinone pigment comes from the fruit and bark. The fruit is boiled producing saffron acid, and then steeped in cold water. It can also be used to dye directly producing a ‘fresh’ yellow’ or with mordants for more shades and tones of yellow. (p 264 Chinese Textile Design)

Chinese Scolar tree (Sophora japonica), also known as the yellow scholar tree, produced a yellow dye from rue glucosides in the flower stamens and petals. (p 264 Chinese Textile Design)

Curcuma aromatica, a member of the ginger family, had a dye from the stalks, and with mordants left various yellows and a lingering scent. (p 264 Chinese Textile Design)

This Piece

Weaving

This piece is made from tabby woven silk. I am only just starting learning twill and would prefer to do that on less expensive material.

Pre-spun silk was measured and attached to leavings of a previous warp. The previous project was set essentially at 32 ends per inch so to not waste costly silk the ends were tied together. Originally I was aiming for 32 epi but felt it was too gauzy for the project so adapted it on the loom to a higher epi.

silk on loom
Silk loaded onto four-shed loom ready to weave.
silk warp loaded
Weaving then began with a cotton weft to line up the warp.

The weft was then changed to the same silk and woven at the desired width.

finished silk
Woven silk pre-washed.

Silk was obtained locally already spun. This was my first time weaving with silk and was enjoyable. Some slight deviation with width occurred, which will work out in the finished piece.

Dyeing

The applique pieces are from pre-woven store bought silk as I had that on hand and was the weight I desired for applique. Strips of 11 grams were cut and prepared for dying.

As I already had the appropriate period dye Madder I used that for the red. Weld, for the yellow, is a plant that grows in Europe and Western Asia and I had stocks of that as well. Both pieces were scoured with Synthrapol and mordanted with Alum and Cream of Tartar.

scour
Scour with Synthrapol of both silk pieces.

Applique pieces are dyed in madder, for the rust/red colour, and weld, for the yellow/green colour.

dyed drying
Dyed fabric hanging to dry.

While many resist dye techniques were used during the time period, I felt a basic dye process was sufficient. The pieces will be small so additional patterning would likely not be noticed.

Applique

The applique design was drawn freehand from a printout of the original onto graph paper. It was then traced over with a felt pen, scanned, and multiple printouts made.

applique pattern
Using graph paper the pattern was drawn freehand in pencil then overdrawn in fine felt pen.

Using my front window as a light box the pattern was transferred from design onto fabric with a regular pencil. In period it likely was painted onto the fabric first.

pattern transfer
Silk with transferred pattern in pencil.

Chain stitch is used to apply applique to the wallet silk. I originally started out in split stitch due to my brain confusing the two. That was removed and restarted with the proper chain stitch. It will be stitched around the edges and then trimmed back.

chain stitch start
Start of the chain stitch of the pattern. A big improvement over the split stitch.

Stitching is done in a single strand of silk.

split stitch
Four strand error in Split stitch.

Comparing the Chain stitch and the Split stitch one can see the increased neatness of the Chain and a more defined pattern.

chain stitch overall
Pattern stitched more completely in Chain Stitch.

Once the Chain stitch is complete the fabric around will be cut away, certain areas will be retained to maintain fabric structural integrity.

applique cut
Cutting the applique fabric away from the Chain Stitch.
Side one of applique stitched and cut away.

Once the applique process is complete a cotton lining, for durability, will be attached. The item will then be then handstitched into butterfly shape, with the outer end edges folded into the center to make the opening for the coins. Those edges will be shaped into the oval opening.

Bibliography

Chinese Textile Design

Gao Hanyu    translated by Rosemary Scott and Susan Whitfield

Copywrite: 1986 The Commercial Press Ltd., Hong Kong Branch

Copywrite: 1992 English version Penguin Books Ltd.

Printed Hong Kong by C&C Joint Printing Co. (HK) Ltd.

31383034249816 Vancouver Public Library Call Number: 746.0951 G21c

The coffin opened to find the body is not rotten, the young woman, with female privacy supplies, a number of accidental rewrite of archaeology

(棺打开发现尸身未腐,系少妇,身带女性隐私用品,多项意外改写考古 – 育儿资讯(娱乐新闻网) (manyanu.com))(Entertainment News.com

#汉服[超话]# 宋 褡裢/荷包 一 出自… 来自汉服文献咨询 – 微博 (weibo.com))

5000 Years of Chinese Costumes

Zhou Xun, Gao Chunming

Editing: The Chinese Costumes Research Group of the Shanghai School of Traditional Operas

Copywright: 1984 The Commercial Press, Ltd., Hong Kong Branch

                1987 English version China Books and Periodicals, Inc.

                                San Francisco, CA 94110, USA)

 31383064452587 VPL

2017 Xie,a Technical Term for Resist Dye in China: Analysis Based on the Burial Inventory from Tomb 26, Bijiashan, Huahai, Gansu Le Wang Donghua University, Shanghai Feng Zhao China National Silk Museum, Hangzhou

University of Nebraska – Lincoln DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska – Lincoln

(https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1030&context=texterm)

(Study on the Origin of Nantong Blue Calico) ( https://www.atlantis-press.com/article/25873402.pdf)

The Beauty of Nature – Ancient Chinese Traditional Dyeing Technology

(https://iochow.com/the-beauty-of-nature-ancient-chinese-traditional-dyeing-technolog/)

Daily Life in China on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion 1250-1276

                Gernet, Jaques. Translated from the Fench by H.M. Wright. C. 1962 Standford University Press

                ISBN 80477200

Explorations of Fabric Finishing

prefinish
Wool prior to any finishing techniques. Woven for previous Baynard’s Castle project 2020.
razor rubbed
Wool razored and rubbed. Top view
razor rubbed side
Wool razored and rubbed side view. Wool looked noticeably smoother and thinner. The threads were ‘squished’ together so there was less open space.
wire brush
Wool brushed with a wire brush (pet hair brush) in one direction. This created fuzziness as fibres were raised and driven in one direction.
wire brush perpendicular
Wool brushed perpendicular to initial brushing with the wire brush (pet hair brush). A further nap was raised and the fabric was noticeably thicker.
wire brush final
The wool, after brushing in both directions with wire brush (pet hair brush) and rubbed with a stone (as seen in picture). With this medium to heavy weight of wool I immediately pictured how well this would work for a blanket.

11 Replies to “Weaving Explorations and a Silk Purse”

  1. What a lovely exhibit 🙂 I particularly liked the weaving experiments and all the close up photos! And you got such a nice red with your madder dye – absolutely fantastic – well done!

  2. That was a wonderful explanation of interesting projects.
    I’ve been weaving for awhile and have not tried double weave yet. Well done. You will soon get the hang of twill. Just remember it will use almost twice as much weft than tabby.
    I look forward to seeing the end result of your purse.
    That purple looks like the purple of your gown.

    1. Greetings,
      Thank you. I have plans to work my way through Jane Stafford’s tutorials and use my weaving book to explore twill. I’ve done a little and am quite intrigued. And yes I used the leftover small pieces of the weave for my dress for the experimenting with finishings. More to discover!

  3. I LOVE LOVE LOVE your project with hand woven fabric for hose! 😉
    I have made a number of pairs of hosen from different patterns, and always wondered how it would work out if I wove the fabric myself, so this is awesome. So detailed and the weaving is so even 😉 Your work is beautiful
    Thanks for sharing this with us!
    Tanikh
    PS bag project is very cool too, I want to come back when I have time and look it over in more detail too ;P

    1. Thank you! The hose was an interesting project. I plan to make a particoloured pair in green and yellow for James as well. And I have some merino wool that I want to weave up to really solidify the differences in epi, texture, uses. All a learning experience. And thanks, the bag I’m plugging away on and hope to have complete construction done by the end of summer.

  4. The evenness of your weave is very impressive! I love those woolen hose. That purse recreation was also really cool. I’ve never seen a purse designed like that. Did it have a strap, carried more like a wallet, or folded on either side of a belt…?

    1. I’ve seen examples of a loop attached on either side at the middle as well as descriptions of it folded over a belt, one half on either side. It is, in my opinion, not designed to hold as much weight as our modern wallets but should be sufficient for coins for the market. And I suspect if the user loaded it down too heavy they would have to carry it or use a larger bag. And thank you regarding the weaving. I do find it looks improved after a wash. I was impressed with the surface “flatness” after drying with the tenderhooks compared to just laying flat.

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